The Beginning of the Communion Service

ONE should not conclude from the title of this segment that “the beginning of the Communion Service,” as distinct from “the rest of the Communion Service,” has always been a defined portion of the English coronation ceremony. For while the Mass was split in two by the Anointing and Crowning in the ninth-century First Recension, and the Prayer-Book Communion Service has likewise been split in two since since the introduction of the Sixth Recension in 1689, the Eucharistic Liturgy at Coronations in the seven hundred intervening years was celebrated without interruption at the end of the solemnity, after the Coronation proper had concluded. Nevertheless, for ease of comparison, when I come to those intervening years I will only deal with the text of the  Mass up to the Creed  the point where its ancestors and descendants are divided. And as this point is held to mark the transition of the Mass of the Catachumens to the Mass of the Faithful Liturgy of the Word to Liturgy of the Eucharist, in today’s lingo I trust none shall accuse me of arbitrarily dissecting the mediæval rite.

In this post  and in the post discussing the Mass of the Faithful, when I get around to writing it  I shall try to confine myself to the texts specific to the Coronation, the Propers. Many learned scholars have already laboured to examine the Ordinary of the English Liturgy, in both its pre-Reformation and post-Reformation forms, and even were I a learned scholar myself it would be rather tangential of me to dwell overmuch on texts neither written nor selected for the Coronation. But at some few points I shall have to delve into the Ordinary, especially in the Sixth Recension where the orders of service tamper with the order of the Holy Communion as written in the Prayer Book.

The First Recension

“The Mass for Kings on the Day of their Hallowing” begins with the Introit : Ps. 119: 1 with Ps: 119: 137 as antiphon.

Ant. Iustus domine. Psalmus. Beati immaculati.

Anthem. Righteous art thou, O Lord, and true is thy judgement. Psalm. Blessed are those that are undefiled in the way.

No immediate connection to coronations is apparent in this text, but the following application seems plausible : As the Church in the antiphon acclaims God as the righteous and true Judge to whom all men must give account, so she prays in the psalm-verse that the King may attain the virtue he shall need to stand blameless before that Judge when his earthly reign comes to an end. We should note that this Introit is not unique to the Coronation Mass. With incipit slightly altered to Iustus es, Domine, it serves to open the Mass of an ordinary “Green” Sunday in several mediæval Uses : the Seventeenth Sunday after Trinity in Sarum, York, and Hereford, and the Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost in Rome. I am unsure if the Introit was used in the time and place the First Recension was written, so the common text may be coincidence, but at least its status as a Sunday Mass Introit has inspired some fine musicians to sing it for us.

Then follows the Collect :

Deus regnorum omnium et christ- iani maxime protector imperii. dá seruo tuo regi nostro .ill. tri- umphum uirtutis tue scienter excolere. ut quia tua constitutione est princps. tuo semper munere sit potens. per

O God, the protector of all king- doms, and mighty defender of the Christian realm, grant unto thy servant N. our king that he may with wisdom foster his power and might, that he, by whose provi- dence princes arise, may endue him with his gift of power. Through.

A version of this prayer, with “Romani” instead of “Christiani,” appears in the Missa pro Regibus  in the eighth-century Gelasian Sacramentary. Early modern Anglophone Romanism, having no kings to crown, uses the prayer not as liturgy but as a popular devotion for the distant Holy Roman Emperor. In  The Primer, Or, Office of the B. Virgin Mary (1717), we read the following orison: “O God, the Protector of all Kingdoms, and especially of the Christian Empire ; grant that thy Servant N. our Emperour may prudently advance the Triumphs of thy Power ; that as he governs by thy Appointment, he may prevail by thy Strength.” Another Primer (1804) gives it in nearly the same translation, ending with “prudently advance the triumphs of thy appointment, he may prevail by thy strength.”

Instead of the typical Epistle, the first biblical reading at this Mass is a Lesson (Lev. 26: 6-9) from the Old Testament.

Lectio libri leuitici.

Haec dicit dominus deus. Dabo pacem in finubus uestris. dormietus. et not est qui exterreat ; Auferam a uobis malas bestias. et gladius non transibit terminus uestros. Persequimini inimicos uestros. et corruent coram uobis. et persequentur quinque de uestris centum alienos. cadentque inimici uestri. in consepctu uestro gladio. Respiciam uós et crescere faciam. et multiplicabimini. et firmabo pactum meum uobiscum. Dicit dominus omnipotens.

Lesson from the book Leviticus

Thus saith the Lord God : And I will give peace in the land, and ye shall lie down, and none shall make you afraid: and I will rid evil beasts out of the land, neither shall the sword go through your land. And ye shall chase your enemies, and they shall fall before you by the sword. And five of you shall chase an hundred, and an hundred of you shall put ten thousand to flight: and your enemies shall fall before you by the sword. For I will have respect unto you, and make you fruitful, and multiply you, and establish my covenant with you, saith the Lord Almighty.  

Perhaps this Lesson, with its promise of peace, security, and victory to the Children of Israel, spoke well to an English people afflicted by “the fury of the Norsemen.”

The Gradual comes from Ps. 86: 2 and Ps. 5: 1, followed after the Alleluia by either Ps. 21: 1 or Ps: 21: 1. 

℟. Saluum seruum tuum. ℣. Auri- bus percipe domine. Alleluia.
….Domine in uirtute tua.
Allia. Posuisti dimine.

℟. Save thy servant. ℣. Ponder my words, O Lord. Alleluia.
….The king shall rejoice in thy strength, O Lord,
or, Thou hast set a crown of pure gold.

The Gospel (St. Matt. 22: 15-22) is not written out in full; the text gives but the incipit and for the rest refers the reader to the Gospel for the Twenty-Fourth Sunday after Pentecost.  As the same Gospel appears in full in the Liber Regalis, I shall give it due attention there.

The Second Recension

The Missa Pro Ordinato Rege in this ordo is scant compared to the Mass in the First Recension; the only Proper text given before the Offertory is the Collect. Yet this Collect is worthy of much attention, for it will later serve as the Collect for the Mass in the Fourth Recension, and appears outside of the Coronation in a votive Missa pro Rege in the Sarum, Roman, and Ambrosian Missals.

Quesumus omnipotens devs. vt famvlvs tvvs. .ill. qvi tva miser-atione suscepit regni gubernacula. uirtutum etiam omnium percipiat incrementa. quibus decenter orn- atus et uitiorum monstra deuitare et hostes superare. et ad te qui uia ueritas et uita és gratiosus ualeat peruenire. per

O Almighty God, we beseech thee that thy servant N. our King, who by thy mercy hath received the government of this Realm, may also receive an increase of all virtues, whereby he may be acceptable unto thee, and avoid the gulf of vice, and overcome all his enemies, and finally come to thee in glory, who art the Way, the Truth, and the Life, even Christ our Lord. Amen.

While the Collect of the First Recension prayed that the King receive wisdom to “foster his power and might,” this Collect merely mentions in the relative clause that the King “hath received the government of this Realm,” reserving the actual petition of the prayer to ask for the King’s eternal salvation. In its original context, this petition would be prayed by a Catholic people for a Catholic ruler : a laudable request, but not a terribly noteworthy one. England, as a good Catholic nation, will naturally be praying for the soul of her King. But the petition acquires a special poignancy after the Reformation, as the “Popish recusants” of England (no longer in Coronations, but in paraliturgical prayers after Mass) offer this Collect for their heretical sovereigns. See for example this vernacular Missal from 1806:

After Solemn Mass, the following VERSICLES and RESPONSES are sung for the King.

V. Domine, salvum fac Regem nostrum Georgium. R. Et exaudi nos in die qua invocaverimus te. V. Gloria Patri et Gilio, et Spiritui Sancto. R. Sicut era in principio, &c.

Prayer. (Quæasumus.)

WE beseech thee, O Almighty God, that thy servant, George our King, who thro’ thy mercy hath undertaken the government of these realms, may also receive an increase of all virues, [sic] wherewith being adorned, he may avoid every enormity of sin, vanquish his enemies, and being rendered acceptable in thy sight, may, together with Charlotte our Queen, and the royal issue, come at length to thee, who art the way, the truth, and the life. Thro’.

In this  environment, “finally come to thee in glory” would doubtless carry a strong idea of “convert to Rome.” In fact, when I first discovered this Collect some years ago whilst leafing through an old Missal, I imagined it had been specifically written with Protestant monarchs in mind.

On the Protestant side of things, this Collect has not been used at Coronations since Charles II, but it  appears in 2012 (with a disturbing mixture of archaic and contemporary pronouns) in the Church of England’s celebration of Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee:

We beseech thee, Almighty God: that your servant Elizabeth, our Queen, who by thy mercy hath received the government of this realm, may also obtain an increase of every virtue; that, being meetly adorned therewith, she may flee from sin and iniquity, and by thy grace may attain unto thee who art the way, the truth, and the life. Through Jesus Christ, our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God for ever and ever.

The Third Recension

There is no provision for a special Mass; the Mass of the day must be said.

The Fourth Recension

The Coronation Mass in the Liber Regalis begins with a note that should the Coronation fall on a great feast, the special Mass provided should be ignored in favour of the Mass of the day.

Tunc omnibus hiis ita peractis inchoetur officium misse a can- toribus de solempnitate diei. si contigerit dictam fieri corona- cionem in festo solempni.
.

Si uero euenerit quod dicta coronacio fiat in simplici die dominico. missa de dominica prius a conuentu debito more celebreta. Incipiatur missa pro rege Officium.

 

Then when all these things have been done, the office of the Mass for the day’s solemnity shall be begun by the singers, if it happen that the coronation take place on a solemn feast.

But if it chance that the coronation take place on a simple Sunday, when Mass of the Sunday has first been celebrated by the Convent in due order, then shall the special Mass for the king be begun.


If the Mass for the King is indeed to be said, then follows the Introit (Ps. 84: 1 with Ps. 84: 9-10 as antiphon), and a rubric that the Gloria must always be used. A wise rubric, for it is most fitting that “Lord God, heavenly King” be sung at the consecration of a mortal Lord and earthly King.

/Protector noster aspice deus et respice in faciem christi tui quia melior est dies una in atriis tuis super milia. Ps. Quam dilecta tabernacula. Gloria patri.
.

Et quoqumque tempore anni dicta coronacio fuerit facta. dicetur ad missam. Gloria in excelsis.

 

Office. Behold, O God our defender, and look upon the face of thine anointed, for one day in thy courts is better than a thousand. Office Psalm. O how amiable are thy dwellings. Glory be to the Father.

And at whatever time of the year the coronation takes place shall be said at Mass : Glory be to God on high.


The Collect is that of the Second Recension, but a second Collect is given in place of it  or perhaps in addition to it should a Queen be crowned alongside her royal husband.

 

Oracio.

Quesumus omnipotens deus ut famulus tuus .N. rex noster qui tua miseracione siscepit regni gub- ernacula. uirtutum eciam omnium percipiat incrementa : quibus decenter ornatus. et uiciorum uoraginem deuitare et hostes superare et ad te qui uia ueritas et uita es graciosus ualeat peruenire. Per dominum.
x
x
x
Et si regina eodem die fuerit coronata dicetur ad missam tam pro rege quam pro regina ista oracio.
x
Deus in cuius manu corda sunt regum qui es humilium consolator et fidelium fortitudo : et protector omnium in te sperancium : da regi nostro .N. et regine nostre .N. populoque christiano triumphum uirtutis tue scienter excolere. ut per te semper reparentur ad ueniam. Per dominum nostrum ihesum christum filium tuum qui.

The Collect.

O Almighty God, we beseech thee that thy servant N. our King, who by thy mercy hath received the government of this Realm, may also receive an increase of all virtues, whereby he may be acceptable unto thee, and avoid the gulf of vice, and overcome all his enemies, and finally come to thee in glory, who are the Way, the Truth, and the Life, even Christ our Lord. Amen.
x
And if the queen be crowned the same day this Collect shall be said for the king and queen :
x
x
O God in whose hand are the hearts of kings, who art the comforter of the humble, the strength of the faithful, and protector of all that trust in thee, grant that our king and queen and their Christian people, ever acknowledging with their hearts the greatness of thy mighty power, may by thy grace obtain forgiveness of all their sins, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Epistle is I St. Peter 2: 13-19a, a pericope which (starting slightly earlier at verse 11) serves also as the Epistle for the Third Sunday of Easter in the Sarum Missal.

Leccio epistole beati petri apostoli.
x

/KArissimi : Subiecti estote omni humani creature : propter deum. Siue regi : quasi precellenti. Siue ducibus tanquam ab eo missis : ad uindictam malefactorum. laudem uero bonorum. Quia sic est uoluntas dei : ut benefa-cientes obmutescere faciatus impru-dencium hominum ignoranciam. Quasi liberi. et non quasi uelamen habentes malicie libertatem : sed sicut serui dei. Omnes honorate : fraternitatem diligite. Deum timete : regem honorificate. Serui : subditi estore in omni timore dominis. Non tantum bonis et modesties : sed eciam discolis Hec est enim gracia. In christo ihesu : domino nostro.

The lesson from the Epistle of blessed Peter the Apostle.

Dearly beloved: Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men: As free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the servants of God. Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king. Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward. For this is thankworthy : in Christ Jesus, our Lord.

Here St. Peter reminds us that, for Christians, obedience to the civil authorities is not merely a prudent caution but a religious duty. His fellow-apostle St. Paul tells us similarly in the famous Romans 13, but the Petrine passage strikes yet deeper against our modern notions of freedom and democracy. While Romans 13 can be accused of a naïve assumption that “rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil” always holds true, I Peter 2 explicitly  recognizes that our rulers might be unjust… and then tells us to obey them anyway.

The Gradual is Ps. 141: 2 (a rather odd choice for a morning ceremony), an Alleluia,  and Ps. 21: 1. During the Lenten and pre-Lenten seasons, when the jubilant “A word” is forbidden, the Gradual is replaced by a Tract (Ps. 21: 2-3).

Gradale.

Dirgatur oracio mea sicut in- sensum in conspectu tuo domine. ℣. Eleuacio manuum mearum sacrificium uespertinum. Alleluya. ℣. Domine in uirtute tua letabitur rex et super salutare tuum exultabit uehementer.

Si dicta coronacio fiat inter septuagesiman et pascha tractus.
x

Desiderium anime eius tribuisti ei et uoluntate labiorum eius non frau/dasti eum. ℣. Quoniam preuenisti eum in benediccione dulcedinis. ℣. Posuisti super capud eius coronam de lapide precioso.

Grail.

Let my prayer be set forth in thy sight, O Lord, as the incense. ℣. And let the lifting up of my hands be an evening sacrifice. Alleluia. ℣. The king shall rejoice in thy strength, O Lord; exceeding glad shall he be of thy salvation.

If the coronation take place between Septuagesima and Easter, this Tract shall be said :

Thou hast given him his heart’s desire, and hast not denied him the request of his lips. ℣. For thou shalt prevent him with the blessings of goodness. ℣. And shalt set a crown of pure gold upon his head.


The Gospel is St. Matt. 22: 15-21.

Secundum matheum.

In illo tempore : Abeuntes pharisei consilium inierunt ut caperent ihesum in sermone. Et mittunt ei discipulos suos cum herodianis dicentes. Magister : scimus quia uerax es. et uiam dei in ueritate doces. et non est tibi cura de aliquot. Non enim respicis personam hominum. Dic ergo nobis : quid tibi uidetur. Licet censum dari cesari annon? Cognita autem ihesus nequicia eorum ait. Quid me temptatis ypocrite. Ostendite michi nummisma census. At illi optulerunt ei denarium. Et ait illis ihesis. Cuius est ymago hec et superscripcio? Dicunt ei. Cesaris. Tunc ait illis. Reddite ergo que sunt cesaris cesari : et que sunt dei deo.

According to Matthew.

At that time : Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Cæsar, or not? But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? They say unto him, Cæsar’s. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s.

In contemporary American political discourse, one often sees people citing this passage in support of the Separation of Church and State : either by liberal Christians who oppose religious influence in government, or by libertarian  Christians who oppose government influence on anything. So it is instructive to realize that earlier generations of Christians had no qualms about reading “render unto Cæsar” to celebrate the ultimate Union of Church and State.

Finally, we have instructions for the veneration of the Book of the Gospels during the singing of the Creed.

Lecto euuangelio dum cymbolum a choro decantatur. maior inter archiepiscopos siue episcopos tunc assistentes librum euangelii accipiet et tam ad regem ad reginam deportabit ad osculandum. deinde referet ad archiepiscopum siue /episcopum qui missam celebrat.

When the gospel has been read, and while the Creed is sung, the chief Archbishop or Bishop assisting shall take the book of the gospels to the king and queen to kiss. Then he shall take it back to the Archbishop or Bishop who is celebrating Mass.

James I (25 July 1603)

The Collect is that of the Liber Regalis. The Epistle and Gospel are also the same, but as they are not written out in full we cannot tell if they began and ended at exactly the same point in the chapter. The  Introit and Gradual are gone. The Gloria in excelsis migrates to the end of the service in accordance with the 1559 Prayer Book, so we see no mention of it here. Note, however, that the opening Lord’s Prayer, Collect for Purity, and Ten Commandments prescribed by the Prayer Book appear to be omitted.

The Archbisshop goeth downe to the Alter and begins the Communion.

The praier.

QUÆSUMUS OMNIPOTENS.

O Allmightie god (wee beeseech thee) that this thy servaunt James owr Kinge, who by thy mercie hath receaued the gouernement of this Reallme, may also receaue an increase of all virtues, whereby hee maie bee acceptable to thee, and avoyde the gullfe of vice and overcome all his enemies, and finally come to thee in glorie, who arte the waie, the truth, and the Lieff, through Christe our Lorde. Amen.

/The Epistle. 1 Pet. 2.
The Gospell. Math. 22.    }by two Bishoppes.
The Nicen Creede.

Charles I (2 Feb 1626)

The scriptural lections are now written out in full. The Epistle (read by Theophilus Feild, Bishop of Llandaff)  loses its final verse, bringing it in line with the end of the Epistle for the Third Sunday after Easter in the Prayer Book. As if to balance this, the Gospel (read by Samuel Harsnett, Bishop of Norwich and later Archbishop of York) gains a verse at the end.  The listener now has a greater appreciation of the biblical context of the passage, but the liturgical effect is perhaps regrettable, since he hears the reading end by considering the reaction of some unnamed and unimportant figures to Jesus’ words, instead of hearing the words themselves that he might ponder their application to the present solemnity.

/THEN THE ARC-BISHOP
begineth the Communion and vseth this Prayer.

O Almightie God, Wee bessech thee that thy Servant CHARLES our King, whoe by thy mercie hath receiued the government of this Realme, may also receiue an increase of all vertues, wherby hee may be acceptable vnto thee, and avoid the gulfe of Vice, and overcome all his enemyes, and finally come to thee in glorie, whoe art the way the truth and the life, even Christ our Lord. Amen.

Then is the Epistle read by a Bishoppe.

THE EPISTLE.
1 Pet. 2/ 13. 14. 15. etc.

Submitt yor selues therefore every man for the Lords sake, whither it be vnto King as vnto the Cheife head, eyther vnto Rulers, as vnto them that are sent of him, for the punishment of evill doers, but for the Laude of them that doe well ; for this is the Will of God that wth well doing you may stoppe the mouthes of foolish and ignorant men, as free and not having yr libertie /for a cloake of malitiousnes, but even as the servantes of God : Honor all  men : love brotherly fellowshipp ; fear god ; honor the King.

Then the Ghospell read by another B.p

THE GHOSPELL.
Math. 22./ 15. 16. etc.

Then the Phareses went out and tooke Councell howe they might tangle him in his Wordes, and they sent vnto him their disciples with Herods servantes saying, Master wee knowe that thou art just, and teachest the way of God, neyther carest thou for any man, for thou regardest not the outward apeparance of men, Tell vs therefore, howe thinkest thou, is it lawfull that Tribute be given vnto Cæsar or not ? but Jesus perceiving their wickednes said, Whie tempt you mee you hipocrites ? Shewe mee the Tribute monney ; And they tooke him a penny ; and hee said vnto them, Whose is this Image and superscription? They answered vnto him Cæsars : Then said hee vnto them, Give therefore unto Cæsar /the things wch are Cæsars, and vnto God those things wch are Gods. When they heard these things they marvelled, and left him, and Went their way.

Then the ArchB.p beginneth, and the Quire singeth the Nicene Creed.

I beleiue in one God, etc.

 

Charles II (23 April 1661)

The Holy Communion is prefaced by an Anthem (Ps. 84: 9, 12-13) that, intentionally or not, comes from the same Psalm as and shares one verse with the Introit of the Liber Regalis.

Behold; O LORD our Defender, and look upon the Face of thine anointed.

The LORD GOD is a Light and Defence. The LORD will give Grace and Glory, and no good Thing will be withold from them, that live a Godly Life.

O LORD GOD of Hosts! Blessed is the Man, who putteth his Trust in thee.

The Epistle (read by Henry King, Bishop of Chichester) now starts back at verse 11. The Gospel (read by Matthew Wren, Bishop of Ely) begins at the usual verse 15. Neither lesson has its ending verse specified in the records I can find. The Nicene Creed (begun by Gilbert Sheldon, Bishop of London and later Archbishop of Canterbury) is “sung by the Gentlemen of the Chapel, with Verse and Chorus, the Violins and other Music playing alternately.” 

James II (23 April 1685)

As there is no Eucharistic Service at this unfortunate monarch’s crowning, we can at once move on to the coming of the Sixth Resension with William and Mary.

William III and Mary II (11 April 1689)

As mentioned in the opening of this post, the Communion Service is now split, with the first half taking place before the Anointing. The Lord’s Prayer and the Collect for Purity are now said, as for an regular Prayer-Book Communion Service, but the Ten Commandments remain absent. The Collect (which was said earlier this morning at the special form of Morning Prayer appointed for the Coronation) is a hybrid of the two Collects for the King from the Ordinary of the Communion Service. The Epistle and Gospel are not written out, but they are presumably now taken from the Authorized Version of 1611, as provided for by the 1662 revision of the Prayer Book.

¶ Then the Archbishop beginneth the Communion.

Our Father which art in Heaven etc.
Almighty God unto whom all hearts be open etc.
Almighty God whose Kingdom is Everlasting etc.

¶  The Epistle to be read by a Bishop. 1 Pet. 11. 11-17.
¶  The Gospel to be read by another Bishop. S.Matt. xxii. 15-22.
¶ Then the ArchBishop beginneth the Nicene Creed, and the Quire singeth it ; the King and Queen standing up.

Anne (23 April 1702)

The only change from 1689 is that the Epistle now begins with verse 13, as it did in the Liber Regalis.

George I (20 October 1714)

We do not have the complete Order of Service, but from what I can tell it appears to be as in 1702.

George II (11 October 1727)

For the first time, the Ten Commandments are said. The Beginning of the Communion Service here is therefore identical in structure to the Prayer-Book Beginning of the Communion Service on an ordinary Sunday, save that no Collect of the Day is said after the Collect for the King. The Creed is recited, not sung. All else as in 1702.

As we have a Order of Service giving the full text of this section, something we have lacked since we looked at Charles I’s Coronation in 1626, I shall reproduce it in full below.

SECT. V.

The Beginning of the Communion Service.

Then the Archbiſhop beginneth the Communion Service.

Our Father which art in heaven ; Hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdome come. Thy will be done in earth, As it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our treſpaſſes, As we forgive them that treſpaſs againſt us. And lead us not into temptation ; But deliver us from evil. Amen.

Collect.

Almighty God, unto whom all hearts be open, all deſires known, and from whom no ſecrets are hid ; Cleanſe the thoughts of our hearts by the inſpiration of thy holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, and worthily magnifie thy holy Name, though Chriſt our Lord. Amen.

¶ Then ſhall the Archbisſhop, turning to the People, rehearſe distinctly all the Ten Commandments ; and the People ſtill kneeling, ſhall after every Commandment ask God Mercy for their tranſsgreſſion thereof for the time paſt, and Grace to keep the ſame for the time to come, as followeth.

Archbishop. God ſpake theſe words, and ſaid, I am the Lord thy God : thou ſhalt have none other gods but me.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law.
Archb. Thou ſhalt not make to thy ſelf any graven image, nor the likeneſs of any thing that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the water under the earth. Thou ſhalt not bow down to them, nor worſhip them : for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, and viſit the ſins of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me, and ſhew mercy unto thouſands in them that love me, and keep my commandments.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law.
Archb. Thou ſhalt not take the Name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltleſs that taketh his Name in vain.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law.
Archb. Remember that thou keep holy the ſabbath-day. Six days ſhalt thou labour, and do all that thou haſt to do ; but the ſeventh day is the ſabbath of the Lord thy God. In it thou ſhalt do no manner of work, thou, and thy ſon, and thy daughter, thy man-ſervant, and thy maid-ſervant, thy cattle, and the ſtranger that is within thy gates. For in ſix days the Lord made heaven and earth, the ſea, and all that in them is, and reſted the ſeventh day: wherefore the Lord bleſſed the ſeventh day, and hallowed it.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law.
Archb. Honour thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law.
Archb. Thou ſhalt do no murder.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law.
Archb. Thou ſhalt not commit adultery.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law.
Archb. Thou ſhalt not ſteal.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law.
Archb. Thou ſhalt not bear false witneſs againſt thy neighbour.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law. 
Archb.
Thou ſhalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou ſhalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his ſervant, nor his maid, nor his ox, nor his aſs, nor any thing that is his.
People. Lord, have mercy upon us, and write all theſe thy laws in our hearts, we beſeech thee.

¶ Then ſhall follow this Collect for the King, the Archbiſhop ſtanding as before, and ſaying,

Let us pray.

Almighty God, whoſe kingdom is everlasting, and power infinite ; Have mercy upon the whole Church; and ſo rule the heart of thy chosen servant GEORGE our King and Governour, that he (knowing whoſe Miniſter he is) may above all things ſeek thy honour and glory ; and that we and all his ſubjects (duly conſidering whoſe Authority he hath) may faithfully ſerve, honour, and humbly obey him, in thee, and for thee, according to thy bleſſed word and ordinance, through Jesus Chriſt our Lord, who with thee and the holy Ghoſt liveth and reigneth ever one God, world without end. Amen.

The Epistle,

To be read by one of the Biſhops.

1 Peter ii. 13.

Submit your ſelves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s ſake: whether it be to the King as ſupreme; or unto Governours, as unto them that are ſent by him for the puniſhment of evil-doers, and for the praiſe of them that do well. For ſo is the will of God, that with well-doing ye may put to ſilence the ignorance of foolish men: As free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciouſneſs, but as the ſervants of God. Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.

The Gospel,

To be read by another Biſhop, the King and Queen with the people ſtanding.

S. Matth. xxii. 15.

Then went the Phariſees, and took counsel how they might intangle him in his talk. And they ſent out unto him their diſciples, with the Herodians, ſaying, Maſter, we know that thou art true, and teacheſt the way of God in truth, neither careſt thou for any man: for thou regardeſt not the perſon of men. Tell us therefore what thinkeſt thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Ceſar, or not ? But Jesus perceived their wickedneſs, and ſaid, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? Shew me the tribute-money. And they brought unto him a peny. And he ſaith unto them, Whose is this image and ſuperſcription? They say unto him, Ceſars. Then ſaith he unto them, Render therefore unto Ceſar the things which are Ceſars: and unto God the things that are God’s. When they had heard these words they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

The Nicene Creed, by the Archbiſhop, the King and Queen with the People ſtanding, as before.

I believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, And of all things viſible and inviſible :
And in one Lord Jeſus Chriſt, the only begotten son of God, Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God, Begotten, not made, Being of one ſubſtance with the Father, by whom all things were made: Who for us men, and for our ſalvation came down from heaven, And was incarnate by the holy Ghoſt of the Virgin Mary, And was made man, And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He ſuffered and was buried, And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, And aſcended into heaven, And ſitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he ſhall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose kingdom ſhall have no end.
And I believe in the holy Ghoſt, The Lord and giver of life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, Who with the Father and the Son together is worſhipped and glorified, Who ſpake by the Prophets. And I believe one Catholick and Apoſtolick Church. I acknowledge one Baptiſm for the remiſſion of ſins. And I look for the reſurrection of the dead, And the life of the world to come. Amen.

George III (22 September 1761)

I again lack the full text; it appears to be as in 1727.

George IV (19 July 1821)

All as in 1727.

William IV (8 Sep 1831)

The only change is the introduction of a musical prelude before the Lord’s Prayer. In itself this would be an inoffensive or even laudable addition, but the music chosen is “a Sanctus.” Not only is this an odd place for the text, but it seems perverse that this Introit Sanctus is sung while the “real” Sanctus after the Sursum Corda is recited.

Victoria (28 June 1838)

All as for William IV.

Edward VII (9 Aug 1902)

The opening Sanctus is replaced by Ps. 5: 2, which had been the Offertory verse in the Liber Regalis

O hearken thou unto the voice of my calling, my King, and my God : for unto thee will I make my prayer.

It is sung to a setting by Sir Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900).  The Order of Service labels this text as “The Introit,” showing the Church of England’s post-Oxford Movement enthusiasm for ancient liturgical nomenclature. But this is strictly an innovation, not a revival, since the Liber Regalis had followed the Sarum custom of calling the anthem opening the Mass by “Office” instead of the Roman term “Introit.”

The Ten Commandments are removed, so immediately after the Lord’s Prayer and the Collect for Purity comes the Collect of the Day. This is not the first Collect for the King from the Prayer-Book Communion Service, as has been used since 1689, but the ancient Deus, qui populis hitherto said at the end of the Litany.

O God, who providest for thy people by thy power, and rulest over them in love : Grant unto this thy servant EDWARD, our King, [for whose recovery we now give thee heartfelt thanks,] the Spirit of wisdom and government, that being devoted unto thee with all his heart, he may so wisely govern this kingdom, that in his time thy Church and people may continue in safety and prosperity ; and that, persevering in good works unto the end, he may through thy mercy come to thine everlasting kingdom ; through Jesus Christ thy Son our Lord. Amen.

The bracketed words are a handwritten addition by Archbishop Temple, referring to His Majesty’s recent illness that has delayed the service from its planned date of 26 June.

George V (22 June 1911)

The Introit changes to Ps. 141: 2. 

Let my prayer come up into thy presence as the incense : and let the lifting up of my hands be as an evening sacrifice.

This text was the Anthem at the Offertory from Charles I to George III, and again for Edward VII. At the last-named, it was sung to a setting by Henry Purcell, and it retains that music in the new position.

After the Introit, we find that not only the Ten Commandments but also the Lord’s Prayer and the Collect for Purity are gone. The salutation “The Lord be with you And with thy spirit” now prefaces the Collect Deus, qui populis, which gains an extended Trinitarian ending, and naturally loses the interpolation on the King’s recovery.

O God, who providest for thy people by thy power, and rulest over them in love : Grant unto this thy servant GEORGE, our King, the Spirit of wisdom and government, that being devoted unto thee with all his heart, he may so wisely govern this kingdom, that in his time thy Church and people may continue in safety and prosperity ; and that, persevering in good works unto the end, he may through thy mercy come to thine everlasting kingdom ; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

The Creed is sung to the classic setting by John Merbecke.

George VI (12 May 1937)

The text of the Introit is again “Let my prayer come up,” but the music is now a setting by Sir Edward Bairstow (1874-1946). The Collect is as for George V, except that “govern this kingdom” becomes simply “govern,” in recognition of the Empire’s many realms. The Creed is sung to the Short Service of Byrd.

Elizabeth II (2 June 1953)

The Introit is Ps: 84: 9-10, as it had been in the Liber Regalis, and is sung to a setting by Herbert Howells (17 October 1892 – 23 February 1983).

The Collect for Purity returns   as do the Ten Commandments, in a sense, for a threefold Kyrie now follows the Collect for Purity, and we must recall that the refrain “Lord have mercy upon us” in the Prayer-Book Communion Service is taken from the Kryie that occupied that place in the 1549 book and its Sarum stepmother.

The Collect Deus, qui populis restores the reference to “Christian devotion” which had had turned into “Christian religion” with William and Mary’s coronation and vanished altogether from the prayer by Victoria’s.

Ps. 141: 2, which at the last three Coronations was sung once at the Offertory and twice as the Introit, appears here in yet another position : the Gradual, between the Epistle and the Gospel. Hopefully this will be its final migration, for this is the position the text held in the Liber Regalis. The music changes as well, to a setting by William Harris. 

The Introit Psalm 84, 9, 10.

Behold, O God our defender : and look upon the face of thine Anointed. For one day in thy courts : is better than a thousand.

Then, the Queen with the people kneeling, the Archbishop shall begin the Communion Service saying:

Almighty God, unto whom all hearts be open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are hid: Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, and worthily magnify thy holy Name; through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Archbishop: Lord have mercy upon us.
Answer: Christ have mercy upon us.
Archbishop: Lord have mercy upon us.

LET US PRAY

O God, who providest for thy people by thy power, and rulest over them in love: Grant unto this thy servant ELIZABETH, our Queen, the Spirit of wisdom and government, that being devoted unto thee with her whole heart, she may so wisely govern, that in her time thy Church may be in safety, and Christian devotion may continue in peace; that so persevering in good works unto the end, she may by thy mercy come to thine everlasting kingdom; through Jesus Christ, thy Son, our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God for ever and ever. Amen.

The Epistle 1 S. Peter 2, 13.
To be read by one of the Bishops.
Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men: as free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the servants of God. Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.

The Gradual Psalm 141, 2.
Let my prayer come up into thy presence as the incense : and let the lifting up of my hands be as an evening sacrifice. Alleluia.

The Gospel S. Matthew 22, 15.
To be read by another Bishop, the Queen with the people standing.
Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. And they sent out unto him their disciples, with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Cæsar, or not? But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? Shew me the tribute-money. And they brought unto him a penny. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? They say unto him, Cæsar’s. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar’s: and unto God the things that are God’s. When they had heard these words they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

And the Gospel ended shall be sung the Creed following, the Queen with the people standing, as before.
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, And of all things visible and invisible;
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God, Begotten, not made, Being of one substance with the Father, By whom all things were made: Who for us men, and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man; And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried; And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, And ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose kingdom shall have no end.
And I believe in the Holy Ghost, The Lord and giver of life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets. And I believe one Catholick and Apostolick Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for the resurrection of the dead, And the life of the world to come. Amen.

.

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